• 0568 Atlantis fritillary, Atlantis parelmoervlinder - kopie.jpg
  • 0789 De renbaan - kopie.jpg
  • 0797 Kleurrijke klederdrachten - kopie.jpg
  • 0843 Bhoedistisch Songzanlin klooster Zhongdian - kopie.jpg
  • 0868 De woningen van de monniken - kopie.jpg
  • 1053 Bezoek aan de Chinese muur.jpg
  • 1086 Forbidden City - kopie.jpg
  • DSC00513 Xueshanliang, 3950m (Huanglong) - kopie.JPG
  • DSC00662 - kopie.JPG
  • DSC00730 Huanglong Tufa Pools - kopie.JPG
  • DSC00750 Huanglong Tufa Pools - kopie.JPG
  • DSC00761 Ons verblijf voor 2 nachten op ruim 3.000 m - kopie (2).JPG
  • DSC01280 Reuzen panda - kopie.JPG
  • DSC01359 Landschap rondom container c.q. yurtkamp - kopie.JPG
  • DSC01578 Balang Shan, 4300m - kopie.JPG
  • DSC01583 Siguniang Shan (Four Girls Mountain) 6250m - kopie.JPG
  • DSC01757 Tibetaanse huizen in Rilong - kopie.JPG
  • DSC02021 Kudde koeien - kopie.JPG
  • DSC02196 - kopie.JPG
  • DSC02375g Li River Cruise from Guilin to Yangshuo - kopie.JPG
  • DSC02380e Li River Cruise from Guilin to Yangshuo - kopie.JPG
  • DSC02380ze Li River Cruise from Guilin to Yangshuo - kopie.JPG
  • dsc04805 Typische woningen in lesotho - kopie.JPG
  • dsc04962 Herdershutjes met typische omheining voor het vee - kopie.JPG
  • DSC05072 Kniphofia caulescens - kopie.JPG
  • DSC05253 Kniphofia caulescens - kopie.JPG
  • dsc05577 En overal vergezelt ons het water - kopie.JPG
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Cronquist, Arthur

Arthur John Cronquist (1919–1992) was a North American botanist and a specialist on Compositae. He is considered one of the most influential botanists of the 20th century, largely due to his formulation of the Cronquist system. Two plant genera in the aster family have been named in his honor. These are Cronquistia, a possible synonym of Carphochaete, and Cronquistianthus, which is sometimes included as a group within Eupatorium. The former was applied by R.M. King and the latter by him and Harold E. Robinson.

Life

Arthur Cronquist was born on March 19, 1919 in San Jose, California, but he grew up outside of Portland, Oregon as well as in Pocatello, Idaho. His parents divorced when he was young and he and his older sister were brought up by his mother who worked for the Union Pacific Railroad in Pocatello. The young boy was an avid member of the Boy Scouts of America, through which he gained an appreciation for the outdoors. He did his undergraduate work at the Southern Branch of the University of Idaho (now Idaho State University). During his time there he studied field botany under Ray J. Davis, who was compiling the Flora of Idaho at the time. After receiving his bachelor's degree in 1938, he went on to earn a master's degree at Utah State University in 1940 working under Bassett Maguire. In the same year he married Mabel Allred, who he remained with until his death. They had two children and a fondness for cats.

Due to a childhood accident, Cronquist's right arm was partially disabled, making him unfit for military service in World War II. Instead he began work on his doctorate at the University of Minnesota under C.O. Rosendahl, earning his PhD in 1944. His dissertation was a revision of the genus Erigeron. In 1943, while still working on his doctorate, he was offered a position at the New York Botanical Garden to work on Asteraceae for "The New Britton & Brown Illustrated Flora" then in preparation by Henry Gleason. From 1946 to 1948 he held a position at the University of Georgia, followed by a three year position at Washington State University. Before returning to the New York Botanical Garden where he would spend the rest of his career, he worked as a botanist in Brussels with the U.S. Foreign Aid Program from 1951 to 1952. He died of heart failure on March 22, 1992 while studying specimens of Mentzelia at the herbarium at Brigham Young University.

Development of the Cronquist system

While Cronquist was in his mid-thirties, he began to question the usefulness of Adolf Engler & Karl Prantl's taxonomic system, laid down in their work Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (The Natural Plant Families), which had been the dominant system since the late 19th century. Although Cronquist was originally involved mostly with the family Asteraceae rather than with general systems, he began publishing on the topic in 1957 after much discussion with his peers concerning the challenge of forming a new taxonomic system. At the time he began his work on his general scheme of classification, several others were working with the same goal in mind, including the American Robert F. Thorne, the Dane Rolf Dahlgren, and Armen Takhtajan of the U.S.S.R.. Each of them would go on to produce their own taxonomic schemes, though Cronquist's would prove to be the most widely adopted. While working on the project in the 1960s, Cronquist came to be close friends with Armen Takhtajan and both men put all of their information at one another's disposal. To this end Cronquist decided to learn Russian in order to have access to the scientific literature that the Soviet Union had accumulated, which was largely unknown to the rest of the world. He made several trips to the U.S.S.R. to meet with Takhtajan and other Soviet botanists and translated many botanical works from Russian throughout his life.

He published his first large scale taxonomic overview in The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants in 1968 with a revised and expanded second edition being released in 1988. This work also was a survey of the practices of systematic botany. In 1981 he published his landmark work, An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. The work divided flowering plants into 2 classes with a number of subclasses and down to the family level, with each taxon being described and defined. The system would go on to be adopted by several major projects in floristics, including the Jepson Manual (1993), Flora of North America, Flora of China, Flora of Australia and of course Gleason and Cronquist's Manual of the Vascular Plants, which was published in 1991.

Works

Arthur Cronquist is probably best remembered for his work dealing with his Cronquist system, which was laid down in:

  • An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) and
  • The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1st edition 1968; 2nd edition 1988) ISBN 0-89327-332-5

The standard author abbreviation Cronquist is used to indicate this individual as the author when citing a botanical name.

Dieren tijdens mijn reizen

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Aalscholver visser in Yangshuo, China, 2007
Aalscholver visser in Yangshuo, China, 2007
Aapje, China, 2007
Agame, Kazachstan, 2005
Alopochen aegyptiacus (nijlgans), Creijsport Schijndel, 2015
Alopochen aegyptiacus (nijlgans), Creijsport Schijndel, 2015
Alopochen aegyptiacus (nijlgans), Creijsport Schijndel, 2015
Amata cocandica, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Apart schapenras, Picos, 2003
Ardea purpurea of Purperreiger, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Argiopa lobata, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Argiopa lobata, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Atlantis fritillary, Atlantis parelmoervlinder, China, 2004
Bavianen op de weg, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Boerderij, China, 2004
Buteo rufofuscus (Jakhalsbuizerd), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Calopteryx splendens, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Charolais koeien, Frankrijk, 1979
Close-up gier, Senegal, 1981
Coccinia palmata, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
De bavianen waren zeer lastig, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een gevaarlijke zwarte schorpioen, Senegal, 1981
Een hagedis, Californië, 1996
Een hagedis, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Een kudde koeien, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een kudde zebu's, Senegal, 1981
Een mot, China, 2007
Een ongevaarlijke slang, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een troep gewone herten common reedbuck, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een van de vele mooie vlinders, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Eend en vissen in de roeivijver, Madrid, 2018
En ook hier grazen paarden, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Eublepharis macularius, Buk, 2012
Flamingos, Frankrijk, 1979
Gekko, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Gekko, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Geronticus calvus zuidelijke kaalkop ibis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Gier, Senegal, 1981
Groene kikker, Creysport, Schijndel, 2017
Groene kikker, Creysport, Schijndel, 2017
Groep grijze reebokken, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Gyps himalayensis, Himalaja gier, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Hagedis, Botanische tuin Utrecht, 2017
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hamerkopvogel, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Het is voorjaar, er zijn veel veulens, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Het is voorjaar, er zijn veel veulens, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Jaarlijkse trek van de koolwitjes, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazachstan, 2005
Jeti-Oguz Schapen waren er wel in overvloed, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Jeti-Oguz Schapen waren er wel in overvloed, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Jong zwart varken, China, 2004
Koeien in de wei langs de rivier, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Koeien, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Koeien onderweg van Kolda naar Ziguinchor, Senegal, 1981
Lacerta agilis, Kazachstan, 2005
Melanargia lachesis, Picos, 2003
Melanargia parce, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Melanargia parce, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Melitaea cinxia, Picos, 2003
Mestkever, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Mestkever, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Mestkever, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Mierenhoop, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Monticola explorator of Sentinel rotslijster, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Nectarinia famosa (Emeraldhoningzuiger), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Nectarinia famosa (Emeraldhoningzuiger), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Nectarinia famosa (Emeraldhoningzuiger), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Niet giftige slang, Californië, 1996
Onbekend insect, Kazachstan, 2002
Onbekende kever, Kazachstan, 2005
Onbekende vlinder, Kazachstan, 2005
Onbekende vlinder, Kazachstan, 2005
Ooievaars, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Overal grazen koeien, Picos, 2003
Pad met groene rugstreep, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Papilio machaon, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Phrynocephalus melanurus, Kazachstan, 2005
Rana arvalis (moeraskikker), Kazachstan, 2005
Reuzen panda, China, 2007
Reuzen panda, China, 2007
Reuzen panda, China, 2007
Rode libelle, Frankrijk, 1979
Rode sprinkhaan, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rode sprinkhaan, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rode sprinkhaan, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rups, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rups, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Schildpadden, Tuin van der Sterren, 2012
Secretarisvogel, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Shinisaurus crocodilurus. krokodillenstaarthagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Sprinkhaan op schouder van Vladimir Kolbinysev, Kazachstan, 2005
Sympetrum meridionale, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Termietenheuvel, Senegal, 1981
Tettigonia viridissima, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Textor wever, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Threskiornis aethiopicus of heilige ibis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Twee kevertjes, Kazachstan, 2005
Vanessa cardui Painted Lady, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Vleirat, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Vlinder op Phygelius capensis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Vlinders die bepaalde stoffen uit het natte zand halen, Californië, 1996
Volwassen Yak koe, China, 2007
Wandeling naar Cold Pass, Markakol, Kazachstan, 2005
Wandeling naar Cold Pass, Markakol, Kazachstan, 2005
Weversnesten, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Wilde ezels, China, 2004
Yak, China, 2007
Yak met kalf, China, 2004
Zebra, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zebra en ezels, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zebras, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zeer grote rups (8 cm), Botanische tuin Utrecht, 2016
Zwarte ibis, Senegal, 1981
Zwartkopreiger, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zwartrode tor, Senegal, 1981
Zwartrug jakhals waarschijnlijk hondsdol, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010

Planten, getekend of geschilderd

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Alcea rosea
Amaryllis bresiliensis
Ansellia africana
Cattleya 'Fabia' [Cattleya x lansbergei]
Cattleya guttata var. leopoldii
Cattleya nobilor
Colax puydtii
Colchicum autumnale
Cornelis_Van_Spaendonck__Koolroos
Daphne cneorum en Physostegia virginiana
Delphinium elatum en Dianthus barbatus
Dendrobium nobile
Digitalis purpurea
Disocactus ackermannii
Dodecatheon meadia en Dictamnus albus
Echinacea purpurea
Echinops sphaerocephalus en Eryngium alpinum
Embothrium coccineum
Ephedra distachya
Epipactis helleborine
Erica abietina subsp. aurantiaca en Epilobium angustifolium
Fritillaria imperialis en Corydalis cava subsp. cava
Gentiana acaulis en Kennedia rubicunda
Gerard_van_Spaendonck__Bloemen_in_een_albasten_vaas_en_vruchten_op_marmeren_blad
Helianthus multiflorus en Hedysarum hedysaroides
Helleborus viridis en Hypericum hircinum
Hemerocallis fulva en Hibiscus syriacus
Hippeastrum x johnsonii
Hydrangea macrophylla
Ipomoea perringii
Iris domestica en Iberis gibraltarica
Iris germanica, Iris versicolor en Iris variegata
Kalmia polifolia en Linum arboreum
Laelia dayana
Laelia grandis var. tenebrosa
Lavatera trimestris en Lathyrus sativus
Lobelia cardinalis en Lilium candidum
Lychnis chalcedonica, Leucojum vernum en Lysimachia nummularia
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia officinalis
Mirabilis jalapa, Mimosa sensitiva en Monarda didyma
Nelumbo nucifera en Nolana paradoxa
Nigella damascena en Narcissus jonquilla
Nymphaea stellata
Oenothera fruticosa en Origanum dictamnus
Papaver rhoeas
Paphiopedium curtisii
Phaelaenopsis schilleriana
Pitcairnia nubigena
Pulmonaria officinalis
Romneya trichocalyx
Rosa damascena 'Variegata'
Rosa indica
Rosa multiflora 'Carnea'
Rosa tomentosa
Rubus idaeus
Taraxacum officinale
Vanda sanderiana
Zaluzianskya dentata
Zingiber officinale
Zygopabstia woodlandsense