• 0568 Atlantis fritillary, Atlantis parelmoervlinder - kopie.jpg
  • 0789 De renbaan - kopie.jpg
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Mutis, José Celestino

Jos Celestino Mutis CustomJosé Celestino Mutis (6 April 1732 – 11 September 1808) was a Spanish priest, botanist and mathematician.

Life

He was born in Cádiz and baptized with the name José Celestino Bruno Mutis y Bosio. He began his medical studies at the College of Surgery in Cádiz, where he also studied physics, chemistry and botany. He graduated in medicine from the University of Seville on 2 May 1755.
On 5 July 1757 he received his doctorate in medicine. From 1757 to 1760 he was interim professor of anatomy in Madrid. During those same years he continued to study botany at the Migas Calientes Botanical Gardens (now the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid), and also astronomy and philosopher mathematics.
After three years he decided to leave for America, as the private physician of the new viceroy of New Granada, Pedro Messía de la Cerda. He sailed on 7 September 1760, arriving at Santa Fe de Bogotá on 24 February 1761. During the long transatlantic passage he began writing his Diario de Observaciones, which he continued until 1791.
From his arrival in the Viceroyalty, Mutis concentrated on his botanical studies, beginning work on an herbal and investigating for cinchona, which was considered a panacea for the treatment of all kinds of diseases. He wrote El Arcano de la Quina.

Botanical expedition

Beginning in 1763, Mutis proposed to the king that he sponsor an expedition to study the flora and fauna of the region. He had to wait 20 years for the authorization, but in 1783 the king authorized his expedition (one of three royal botanical expeditions to the New World at about that time). In the interim, Mutis concentrated on commercial and mineralogical projects, not neglecting medicine. He also studied the social and economic conditions of the viceroyalty, and continued to expand his collection of flora and fauna. On 19 December 1772 he was ordained a priest. He was in regular correspondence with scientists in Spain and elsewhere in Europe, particularly Carolus Linnaeus.
Mutis led the Royal Botanical Expedition, established in 1783, for 25 years. It explored some 8,000 km2 in a range of climates, using the Río Magdalena for access to the interior. He developed a meticulous methodology that included the harvesting of the samples in the field together with detailed descriptions, including data on the surroundings of each species and its utility. Hundreds of plants were discovered and described. More than 8,000 plates, plus maps, correspondence, notes and manuscripts were sent to Spain. His museum consisted of 24,000 dried plants, 5,000 drawings of plants by his pupils, and a collection of woods, shells, resins, minerals, and skins. These treasures arrived safely at Madrid in 105 boxes, and the plants, manuscripts, and drawings were sent to the botanical gardens, where they were relegated to a tool-house.
The Royal Botanical Expedition headquarters moved in two different occasions. Initially it was based on the municipality of La Mesa de Juan Diaz (Department of Cundinamarca), then in November 1783 it was moved to Mariquita (Department of Tolima). Finally in 1791 it was moved to Santa Fe de Bogota.
Much of the work was wasted because the results remained unedited and unanalyzed. Also, the collation between the notes and the plates was lost during the transfer to Spain. His work on the species and varieties of Chinchona had lasting influence.
He determined the longitude of Bogotá by the observation of an eclipse of a satellite of Jupiter and was a major influence on the construction of the National Astronomical Observatory.
In March 1762, at the inauguration of the chair of mathematics at the Colegio del Rosario, he expounded the principles of the Copernican system and of the experimental method of science, leading to a confrontation with the church. In 1774 he had to defend the teaching of the principles of Copernicus, as well as natural philosophy and modern, Newtonian physics and mathematics, before the Inquisition.
In 1784, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Alexander von Humboldt visited Mutis in 1801, during his expedition to America. Humboldt stayed with Mutis for two months, and greatly admired his botanical collection.

Mutis died in Bogotá on 2 September 1808, at age 76, a victim of apoplexy. Because much of his botanical work was lost or unpublished, he is known to history not as a great scientist, but as a great promoter of science and knowledge.

Works

  • Botany: He studied the flora of his surroundings, and produced a marvelous collection of plates of Colombian plants that are now located in the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid.
  • Linguistics: He studied the indigenous languages of the area. By order of King Charles III, he developed a series of elementary vocabularies of various languages (about 100 words in each language). King Charles was responding to a request from Tsarina Catherine the Great to provide vocabularies of all the languages spoken in his realms, in order to develop a monumental dictionary of all the languages of the world. The dictionary was in fact published, but the compilers published it in alphabetical order, making it nearly impossible to consult.
  • Other sciences, including important contributions to industrial processes, like silver mining and the distillation of rum.

Street named after Celestino Mutis, in Cadiz, SpainJosé Celestino Mutis banknote.jpg His likeness is well known to spaniards, because his image was used on the old banknotes of 2,000 pesetas. This was the first in a series of banknotes commemorating spain in america. On the reverse was a drawing of the mutisia clematis flower, named in his honor.

José Celestino Mutis Botanical Gardens, a park and center of scientific investigation, is named in his honor in Bogotá. It includes climate-controlled exhibits of the flora in all climate zones of Colombia. There is also an exhibit of 5,000 Colombian orchids, one of Colombia's most extensive.

The official name of the town of Bahia Solano on Colombia's Pacific coast in the Department of Choco is Puerto Mutis, in honor of Jose Celestino Mutis. The airport there is Aeropuerto Jose Celestino Mutis, as well. This town is located north of the city of Buenaventura and north of the San Juan River, the largest river in South America to empty into the Pacific Ocean.

Other expeditions

The four expeditions authorized by King Charles III to the Spanish colonies were those of Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón to Peru and Chile (1777–88); Mutis to New Granada (1783–1808); Juan de Cuéllar to the Philippines (1786–97); and Martín Sessé y Lacasta to New Spain (1787–1803).

The standard author abbreviation Mutis is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.

Dieren tijdens mijn reizen

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Aalscholver visser in Yangshuo, China, 2007
Aalscholver visser in Yangshuo, China, 2007
Aapje, China, 2007
Agame, Kazachstan, 2005
Alopochen aegyptiacus (nijlgans), Creijsport Schijndel, 2015
Alopochen aegyptiacus (nijlgans), Creijsport Schijndel, 2015
Alopochen aegyptiacus (nijlgans), Creijsport Schijndel, 2015
Amata cocandica, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Apart schapenras, Picos, 2003
Ardea purpurea of Purperreiger, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Argiopa lobata, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Argiopa lobata, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Atlantis fritillary, Atlantis parelmoervlinder, China, 2004
Bavianen op de weg, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Boerderij, China, 2004
Buteo rufofuscus (Jakhalsbuizerd), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Calopteryx splendens, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Charolais koeien, Frankrijk, 1979
Close-up gier, Senegal, 1981
Coccinia palmata, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
De bavianen waren zeer lastig, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een gevaarlijke zwarte schorpioen, Senegal, 1981
Een hagedis, Californië, 1996
Een hagedis, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Een kudde koeien, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een kudde zebu's, Senegal, 1981
Een mot, China, 2007
Een ongevaarlijke slang, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een troep gewone herten common reedbuck, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een van de vele mooie vlinders, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Eend en vissen in de roeivijver, Madrid, 2018
En ook hier grazen paarden, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Eublepharis macularius, Buk, 2012
Flamingos, Frankrijk, 1979
Gekko, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Gekko, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Geronticus calvus zuidelijke kaalkop ibis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Gier, Senegal, 1981
Groene kikker, Creysport, Schijndel, 2017
Groene kikker, Creysport, Schijndel, 2017
Groep grijze reebokken, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Gyps himalayensis, Himalaja gier, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Hagedis, Botanische tuin Utrecht, 2017
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hamerkopvogel, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Het is voorjaar, er zijn veel veulens, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Het is voorjaar, er zijn veel veulens, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Jaarlijkse trek van de koolwitjes, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazachstan, 2005
Jeti-Oguz Schapen waren er wel in overvloed, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Jeti-Oguz Schapen waren er wel in overvloed, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Jong zwart varken, China, 2004
Koeien in de wei langs de rivier, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Koeien, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Koeien onderweg van Kolda naar Ziguinchor, Senegal, 1981
Lacerta agilis, Kazachstan, 2005
Melanargia lachesis, Picos, 2003
Melanargia parce, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Melanargia parce, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Melitaea cinxia, Picos, 2003
Mestkever, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Mestkever, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Mestkever, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Mierenhoop, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Monticola explorator of Sentinel rotslijster, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Nectarinia famosa (Emeraldhoningzuiger), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Nectarinia famosa (Emeraldhoningzuiger), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Nectarinia famosa (Emeraldhoningzuiger), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Niet giftige slang, Californië, 1996
Onbekend insect, Kazachstan, 2002
Onbekende kever, Kazachstan, 2005
Onbekende vlinder, Kazachstan, 2005
Onbekende vlinder, Kazachstan, 2005
Ooievaars, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Overal grazen koeien, Picos, 2003
Pad met groene rugstreep, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Papilio machaon, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Phrynocephalus melanurus, Kazachstan, 2005
Rana arvalis (moeraskikker), Kazachstan, 2005
Reuzen panda, China, 2007
Reuzen panda, China, 2007
Reuzen panda, China, 2007
Rode libelle, Frankrijk, 1979
Rode sprinkhaan, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rode sprinkhaan, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rode sprinkhaan, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rups, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rups, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Schildpadden, Tuin van der Sterren, 2012
Secretarisvogel, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Shinisaurus crocodilurus. krokodillenstaarthagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Sprinkhaan op schouder van Vladimir Kolbinysev, Kazachstan, 2005
Sympetrum meridionale, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Termietenheuvel, Senegal, 1981
Tettigonia viridissima, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Textor wever, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Threskiornis aethiopicus of heilige ibis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Twee kevertjes, Kazachstan, 2005
Vanessa cardui Painted Lady, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Vleirat, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Vlinder op Phygelius capensis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Vlinders die bepaalde stoffen uit het natte zand halen, Californië, 1996
Volwassen Yak koe, China, 2007
Wandeling naar Cold Pass, Markakol, Kazachstan, 2005
Wandeling naar Cold Pass, Markakol, Kazachstan, 2005
Weversnesten, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Wilde ezels, China, 2004
Yak, China, 2007
Yak met kalf, China, 2004
Zebra, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zebra en ezels, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zebras, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zeer grote rups (8 cm), Botanische tuin Utrecht, 2016
Zwarte ibis, Senegal, 1981
Zwartkopreiger, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zwartrode tor, Senegal, 1981
Zwartrug jakhals waarschijnlijk hondsdol, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010

Planten, getekend of geschilderd

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Alcea rosea
Amaryllis bresiliensis
Ansellia africana
Cattleya 'Fabia' [Cattleya x lansbergei]
Cattleya guttata var. leopoldii
Cattleya nobilor
Colax puydtii
Colchicum autumnale
Cornelis_Van_Spaendonck__Koolroos
Daphne cneorum en Physostegia virginiana
Delphinium elatum en Dianthus barbatus
Dendrobium nobile
Digitalis purpurea
Disocactus ackermannii
Dodecatheon meadia en Dictamnus albus
Echinacea purpurea
Echinops sphaerocephalus en Eryngium alpinum
Embothrium coccineum
Ephedra distachya
Epipactis helleborine
Erica abietina subsp. aurantiaca en Epilobium angustifolium
Fritillaria imperialis en Corydalis cava subsp. cava
Gentiana acaulis en Kennedia rubicunda
Gerard_van_Spaendonck__Bloemen_in_een_albasten_vaas_en_vruchten_op_marmeren_blad
Helianthus multiflorus en Hedysarum hedysaroides
Helleborus viridis en Hypericum hircinum
Hemerocallis fulva en Hibiscus syriacus
Hippeastrum x johnsonii
Hydrangea macrophylla
Ipomoea perringii
Iris domestica en Iberis gibraltarica
Iris germanica, Iris versicolor en Iris variegata
Kalmia polifolia en Linum arboreum
Laelia dayana
Laelia grandis var. tenebrosa
Lavatera trimestris en Lathyrus sativus
Lobelia cardinalis en Lilium candidum
Lychnis chalcedonica, Leucojum vernum en Lysimachia nummularia
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia officinalis
Mirabilis jalapa, Mimosa sensitiva en Monarda didyma
Nelumbo nucifera en Nolana paradoxa
Nigella damascena en Narcissus jonquilla
Nymphaea stellata
Oenothera fruticosa en Origanum dictamnus
Papaver rhoeas
Paphiopedium curtisii
Phaelaenopsis schilleriana
Pitcairnia nubigena
Pulmonaria officinalis
Romneya trichocalyx
Rosa damascena 'Variegata'
Rosa indica
Rosa multiflora 'Carnea'
Rosa tomentosa
Rubus idaeus
Taraxacum officinale
Vanda sanderiana
Zaluzianskya dentata
Zingiber officinale
Zygopabstia woodlandsense