• 0568 Atlantis fritillary, Atlantis parelmoervlinder - kopie.jpg
  • 0789 De renbaan - kopie.jpg
  • 0797 Kleurrijke klederdrachten - kopie.jpg
  • 0843 Bhoedistisch Songzanlin klooster Zhongdian - kopie.jpg
  • 0868 De woningen van de monniken - kopie.jpg
  • 1053 Bezoek aan de Chinese muur.jpg
  • 1086 Forbidden City - kopie.jpg
  • DSC00513 Xueshanliang, 3950m (Huanglong) - kopie.JPG
  • DSC00662 - kopie.JPG
  • DSC00730 Huanglong Tufa Pools - kopie.JPG
  • DSC00750 Huanglong Tufa Pools - kopie.JPG
  • DSC00761 Ons verblijf voor 2 nachten op ruim 3.000 m - kopie (2).JPG
  • DSC01280 Reuzen panda - kopie.JPG
  • DSC01359 Landschap rondom container c.q. yurtkamp - kopie.JPG
  • DSC01578 Balang Shan, 4300m - kopie.JPG
  • DSC01583 Siguniang Shan (Four Girls Mountain) 6250m - kopie.JPG
  • DSC01757 Tibetaanse huizen in Rilong - kopie.JPG
  • DSC02021 Kudde koeien - kopie.JPG
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Salisbury. Richard Anthony

Life

Richard Anthony Markham was born in Leeds, England, the son of Richard Markham, a cloth merchant. He attended the University of Edinburgh—possibly instructed by John Hope—and became friendly with James Edward Smith.[1] He changed his last name to Salisbury following a supposed financial arrangement for support in his studies. This arrangement made with a Mrs. Anna Salisbury, related by marriage to his grandmother, or so he claimed in correspondence with Joseph Banks.
Salisbury married Caroline Staniforth in 1796. One child, Eleanor, was born to the couple in 1797; the two separated shortly thereafter. Salisbury had apparently misrepresented his finances when he had proposed marriage, and had large debts at the time of his daughter's birth and had declared bankruptcy for dubious purposes. His honesty in legal and financial matters seems to have been questionable, if not devious. He apparently recovered financially by 1802, when he bought a house.
He established substantial gardens at one of his father's estates, Chapel Allerton, near Leeds, and purchased the former estate of Peter Collinson, Ridgeway House. It was at the latter that a long running dispute began between Smith and him.
Salisbury contributed annotations to Edward Rudge's Plantarum Guianæ Icones (1805–7), and descriptions to Paradisus Londinensis (1806–9). The latter was illustrated by William Hooker, and contained the genus name Hookera honouring him. The genus was renamed by Smith a few years later, Brodiaea, after his wealthy "friend and patron", James Brodie of Brodie.
In 1809, Salisbury was appointed the first honorary secretary of the Horticultural Society. His successor Joseph Sabine found he had left the accounts in disarray. He moved to London around this time; his small garden contained a large number of exotic and rare plants.
Salisbury opposed the use of Linnaeus's systema sexuale for classifying plants, which was one reason why others ignored his work. Another was the belief that Salisbury had behaved unethically. The censure was later reported as: "there was a tacit understanding on the part of the botanical leaders of the period, including Brown, Banks, and Smith, that Salisbury's botanical work and names should, as far as possible, be ignored"—Journal of Botany, 1886, p. 297."
Salisbury was known as a man who was difficult to get along with, and was shunned by many botanists of his day. Nonetheless, he was a meticulous botanist who contributed significantly to the science. His contributions to English botany include a Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) delivered to Kew Gardens, his herbarium was also passed there via his adopted son, Matthew Burchill. Salisbury has met Alphonse de Candolle in his later years, and offered to leave him his inheritance if he would take the name of 'Salisbury'.
He died in 1829. His manuscripts were obtained by John Edward Gray, who published part as Genera Plantarum and deposited the remaining documents at the British Museum. The portrait in pencil by Burchell (1817), acquired by Kew, and Smith's genus Salisburia, a synonym for Ginkgo, denote his part in the history of British botany.
Works

He published a manuscript in 1809 under the name of a friend, Joseph Knight, entitled On the cultivation of the plants belonging to the natural order of Proteeae, which contained only 13 pages related to cultivation techniques, but over 100 pages of taxonomic revision. However, it turned out that the work had nonetheless freely plagiarised the work of yet another botanist (Brown) who was at odds with Salisbury. Salisbury had memorised the plant names from Robert Brown's reading of his On the Proteaceae of Jussieu to the Linnean Society of London in the first quarter of 1809, which was subsequently published in March 1810. Knight and Salisbury thus beat Brown to print and claimed priority for the names that Brown had authored.

Salisbury was accused of plagiarism, ostracised from botanical circles, and his publications were largely ignored during his lifetime. Samuel Goodenough wrote: How shocked was I to see Salisbury's surreptitious anticipation of Brown's paper on New Holland plants, under the name and disguise of Mr. Hibbert's gardener! Oh it is too bad!.

Robert Brown himself wrote of Salisbury: I scarcely know what to think of him except that he stands between a rogue and a fool.

Although Salisbury's generic names have almost all been overturned, many of his specific epithets have been reinstated; since the nominal author was Knight, not Salisbury, Knight is now considered the author of a great many Proteaceae species.

Published works

Contributions mentioned above, and other published works include:

Dieren tijdens mijn reizen

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Aalscholver visser in Yangshuo, China, 2007
Aalscholver visser in Yangshuo, China, 2007
Aapje, China, 2007
Agame, Kazachstan, 2005
Alopochen aegyptiacus (nijlgans), Creijsport Schijndel, 2015
Alopochen aegyptiacus (nijlgans), Creijsport Schijndel, 2015
Alopochen aegyptiacus (nijlgans), Creijsport Schijndel, 2015
Amata cocandica, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Apart schapenras, Picos, 2003
Ardea purpurea of Purperreiger, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Argiopa lobata, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Argiopa lobata, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Atlantis fritillary, Atlantis parelmoervlinder, China, 2004
Bavianen op de weg, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Boerderij, China, 2004
Buteo rufofuscus (Jakhalsbuizerd), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Calopteryx splendens, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Charolais koeien, Frankrijk, 1979
Close-up gier, Senegal, 1981
Coccinia palmata, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
De bavianen waren zeer lastig, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een gevaarlijke zwarte schorpioen, Senegal, 1981
Een hagedis, Californië, 1996
Een hagedis, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Een kudde koeien, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een kudde zebu's, Senegal, 1981
Een mot, China, 2007
Een ongevaarlijke slang, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een troep gewone herten common reedbuck, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Een van de vele mooie vlinders, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Eend en vissen in de roeivijver, Madrid, 2018
En ook hier grazen paarden, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Eublepharis macularius, Buk, 2012
Flamingos, Frankrijk, 1979
Gekko, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Gekko, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Geronticus calvus zuidelijke kaalkop ibis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Gier, Senegal, 1981
Groene kikker, Creysport, Schijndel, 2017
Groene kikker, Creysport, Schijndel, 2017
Groep grijze reebokken, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Gyps himalayensis, Himalaja gier, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Hagedis, Botanische tuin Utrecht, 2017
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Hamerkopvogel, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Het is voorjaar, er zijn veel veulens, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Het is voorjaar, er zijn veel veulens, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Jaarlijkse trek van de koolwitjes, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazachstan, 2005
Jeti-Oguz Schapen waren er wel in overvloed, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Jeti-Oguz Schapen waren er wel in overvloed, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Jong zwart varken, China, 2004
Koeien in de wei langs de rivier, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Koeien, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Koeien onderweg van Kolda naar Ziguinchor, Senegal, 1981
Lacerta agilis, Kazachstan, 2005
Melanargia lachesis, Picos, 2003
Melanargia parce, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Melanargia parce, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Melitaea cinxia, Picos, 2003
Mestkever, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Mestkever, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Mestkever, Kyrgyzstan, 2012
Mierenhoop, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Monticola explorator of Sentinel rotslijster, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Nectarinia famosa (Emeraldhoningzuiger), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Nectarinia famosa (Emeraldhoningzuiger), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Nectarinia famosa (Emeraldhoningzuiger), Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Niet giftige slang, Californië, 1996
Onbekend insect, Kazachstan, 2002
Onbekende kever, Kazachstan, 2005
Onbekende vlinder, Kazachstan, 2005
Onbekende vlinder, Kazachstan, 2005
Ooievaars, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Overal grazen koeien, Picos, 2003
Pad met groene rugstreep, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Papilio machaon, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Phrynocephalus melanurus, Kazachstan, 2005
Rana arvalis (moeraskikker), Kazachstan, 2005
Reuzen panda, China, 2007
Reuzen panda, China, 2007
Reuzen panda, China, 2007
Rode libelle, Frankrijk, 1979
Rode sprinkhaan, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rode sprinkhaan, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rode sprinkhaan, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rups, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Rups, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Schildpadden, Tuin van der Sterren, 2012
Secretarisvogel, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Shinisaurus crocodilurus. krokodillenstaarthagedis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Sprinkhaan op schouder van Vladimir Kolbinysev, Kazachstan, 2005
Sympetrum meridionale, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Termietenheuvel, Senegal, 1981
Tettigonia viridissima, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Textor wever, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Threskiornis aethiopicus of heilige ibis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Twee kevertjes, Kazachstan, 2005
Vanessa cardui Painted Lady, Kyrgyzstan, 2016
Vleirat, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Vlinder op Phygelius capensis, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Vlinders die bepaalde stoffen uit het natte zand halen, Californië, 1996
Volwassen Yak koe, China, 2007
Wandeling naar Cold Pass, Markakol, Kazachstan, 2005
Wandeling naar Cold Pass, Markakol, Kazachstan, 2005
Weversnesten, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Wilde ezels, China, 2004
Yak, China, 2007
Yak met kalf, China, 2004
Zebra, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zebra en ezels, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zebras, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zeer grote rups (8 cm), Botanische tuin Utrecht, 2016
Zwarte ibis, Senegal, 1981
Zwartkopreiger, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010
Zwartrode tor, Senegal, 1981
Zwartrug jakhals waarschijnlijk hondsdol, Drakensbergen en Lesotho, 2010

Planten, getekend of geschilderd

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Alcea rosea
Amaryllis bresiliensis
Ansellia africana
Cattleya 'Fabia' [Cattleya x lansbergei]
Cattleya guttata var. leopoldii
Cattleya nobilor
Colax puydtii
Colchicum autumnale
Cornelis_Van_Spaendonck__Koolroos
Daphne cneorum en Physostegia virginiana
Delphinium elatum en Dianthus barbatus
Dendrobium nobile
Digitalis purpurea
Disocactus ackermannii
Dodecatheon meadia en Dictamnus albus
Echinacea purpurea
Echinops sphaerocephalus en Eryngium alpinum
Embothrium coccineum
Ephedra distachya
Epipactis helleborine
Erica abietina subsp. aurantiaca en Epilobium angustifolium
Fritillaria imperialis en Corydalis cava subsp. cava
Gentiana acaulis en Kennedia rubicunda
Gerard_van_Spaendonck__Bloemen_in_een_albasten_vaas_en_vruchten_op_marmeren_blad
Helianthus multiflorus en Hedysarum hedysaroides
Helleborus viridis en Hypericum hircinum
Hemerocallis fulva en Hibiscus syriacus
Hippeastrum x johnsonii
Hydrangea macrophylla
Ipomoea perringii
Iris domestica en Iberis gibraltarica
Iris germanica, Iris versicolor en Iris variegata
Kalmia polifolia en Linum arboreum
Laelia dayana
Laelia grandis var. tenebrosa
Lavatera trimestris en Lathyrus sativus
Lobelia cardinalis en Lilium candidum
Lychnis chalcedonica, Leucojum vernum en Lysimachia nummularia
Mirabilis jalapa, Mimosa sensitiva en Monarda didyma
Nelumbo nucifera en Nolana paradoxa
Nigella damascena en Narcissus jonquilla
Nymphaea stellata
Oenothera fruticosa en Origanum dictamnus
Papaver rhoeas
Paphiopedium curtisii
Phaelaenopsis schilleriana
Pitcairnia nubigena
Pulmonaria officinalis
Romneya trichocalyx
Rosa damascena 'Variegata'
Rosa indica
Rosa multiflora 'Carnea'
Rosa tomentosa
Rubus idaeus
Taraxacum officinale
Vanda sanderiana
Zaluzianskya dentata
Zingiber officinale
Zygopabstia woodlandsense